Related StoriesDeaths from avoidable risk elements: an interview with Dr Ali Mokdad, IHMECommon ingredient in sunscreen can prevent infections related to medical implantsOlder pneumonia individuals can reap the benefits of ICU admission’Millennium Goal 4 cannot be met without this expenditure,’ said Lob-Levyt. ‘Immunisation is among the most cost-effective methods to conserve lives. And improved health is a fundamental driver for long term advancement. Donors and the global wellness community must remain focused on the cost-effective intervention of immunisation, particularly in today’s economic climate. ‘ The objective of Millennium Goal 4, among the eight goals set by the US in 2000, would be to decrease by two thirds the number of deaths of kids under five by 2015.Arnold, M.D., Amit Bar-Or, M.D., Gavin Giovannoni, M.D., Krzysztof Selmaj, M.D., Carlo Tornatore, M.D., Marianne T. Sweetser, M.D., Ph.D., Minhua Yang, M.S., Sarah I. Sheikh, M.D., and Katherine T. Dawson, M.D. For the DEFINE Study Investigators: Placebo-Controlled Stage 3 Study of Oral BG-12 for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Oral BG-12 has been investigated for the treating multiple sclerosis. Swelling and oxidative stress are central pathologic elements in multiple sclerosis.1,2 Immune cell activation and infiltration into the central nervous system are believed to result in widespread cellular damage, potentially due to the dysregulated discharge and creation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, such as hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite, and proinflammatory stimuli.3 This combination of toxic factors ultimately benefits in demyelination and neurodegeneration, causing disease activity and progression of disability.1,4 BG-12 may also play a role in modulating immune-cell responses by shifting dendritic-cell differentiation,5 suppressing proinflammatory-cytokine creation, or directly inhibiting proinflammatory pathways.